SaaS: The Definitive Guide to Software as a Service

Illustration reflecting a SaaS business model

Let’s discuss a business game-changer – Software as a Service, or SaaS. This brilliant child of the Internet and cloud tech is reshaping how small businesses, startups, and even enterprise companies operate and get stuff done.

There’s no fuss about maintaining or updating – that’s on the provider. They host the SaaS products on centralized servers, regularly fine-tuning and updating things to keep everything running smoothly.

Imagine a restaurant where you don’t have to cook or wash dishes. You just enjoy your meal. That’s what SaaS is like but for software.

In this guide, we’ll untangle the concept of the SaaS business model, share the pros and cons, and share some stories from the business world to show you why SaaS is such a big deal. We hope to give you the know-how to determine whether the SaaS industry could be your next big thing. You’ll learn how SaaS businesses work and discover everything you need to know to launch and grow a successful SaaS business or product.

Breaking down SaaS companies and their business models

SaaS companies rent software through a cloud-based system.

SaaS applications are as diverse as the businesses they serve. While they come in all shapes and sizes, most fall under several categories. Let’s dive into ten categories, giving you a taste of the breadth and depth of the SaaS world:

  1. Packaged SaaS. These are your Swiss Army knives of the SaaS world. They manage specific processes like enhancing employee engagement, strengthening customer relations, or ramping up marketing effectiveness. Think of HubSpot, which offers a suite of tools for managing sales, marketing, and customer relationships, or crowdspring, which provides custom design and naming solutions to strengthen branding.
  2. Collaborative SaaS. Teamwork makes the dream work, and these applications aim to boost how teams function together. Whether messaging, video conferencing, or collaborative document editing, they’ve got your back. Check out Zoom for video conferencing or Basecamp for project management.
  3. Technical SaaS. For the tech-savvy folks out there, these applications offer tools to manage or improve development or technical processes. Cloudsponge allows developers to easily integrate a contact importer into their products, while Algolia provides a powerful search API to enhance search experiences in other apps.
  4. Communication SaaS. These platforms facilitate business communication, both internally and externally. Slack, a channel-based messaging platform, improves internal communication, while Mailchimp, an email marketing platform, streamlines external communication.
  5. Customer service SaaS. These applications enhance a company’s customer service capabilities. Zendesk offers a suite of ticketing, reporting, and customer interaction tools, while Intercom provides a platform for customer messaging.
  6. Human resources SaaS. Managing a workforce is crucial, and these applications make it easier. BambooHR handles HR tasks like hiring, onboarding, and compensation, while Gusto offers cloud-based payroll and benefits solutions.
  7. Analytics SaaS. These platforms help businesses understand their data. Google Analytics helps track website traffic and user behavior, while Mixpanel offers advanced user analytics for mobile and web.
  8. Security SaaS. In the digital age, security is paramount, and these applications help protect your business. Norton offers endpoint protection and antivirus capabilities, while Okta provides secure identity management.
  9. E-commerce SaaS. These platforms help businesses sell online. Shopify and Opencart Cloud provide e-commerce platforms for businesses of all sizes, while BigCommerce offers a platform for building and scaling an online store.
  10. Education SaaS. These platforms support educational institutions and e-learning. Canvas provides a learning management system for schools and universities, while Coursera offers a platform for online courses from various institutions.

Will your business idea succeed?
illustration of entrepreneur evaluating startup ideas
Take our free quiz and find out.

We won't ask for secrets or specifics.
Start the quiz - completely confidential and free!

SaaS products deliver a variety of values. Some, like HubSpot or Shopify, drive revenue growth. Others, like Basecamp or Zendesk, reduce costs by streamlining operations. Others offer recruitment software to streamline your hiring process. Then there are those like Zoom or Slack, whose impact on productivity indirectly influences revenue and cost.

The SaaS industry is booming, with projections placing it at around $195 billion by the end of 2023. As alluring as the potential rewards are, it’s essential to understand the upsides and downsides of the SaaS model.

The pros of SaaS

  • Scalability. The beauty of SaaS is its growth potential. As cloud-based solutions, they can easily accommodate new users, regardless of their location. Tools like Shopify or Slack can effortlessly handle increasing customer data and user bases without affecting performance.
  • Recurring revenue. SaaS companies secure steady income through monthly or annual subscriptions instead of one-off transactions. Products like Adobe Creative Cloud or Microsoft 365 enjoy predictable cash flows, making growth planning and forecasting easier.
  • Easier pivoting and modification. Making product changes doesn’t mean starting from scratch in the SaaS world. After developing an MPV (minimum viable product), updates to apps like Asana or Dropbox can be rolled out seamlessly, bypassing on-site software updates.
  • Broad market potential. A single SaaS product can cater to a diverse clientele. Zoom, for instance, is just as useful for a fledgling startup as it is for a multinational corporation. Tiered pricing allows businesses to cater to different customer segments.
  • Customer loyalty. With a focus on ‘customer success,’ SaaS companies ensure users get the most out of their services. Flexible plans from Spotify or Netflix allow customers to tailor their subscriptions to their evolving needs, fostering loyalty.
  • Low entry barriers. Without the need for physical infrastructure, entering the SaaS market is relatively straightforward. Innovators can create the next Trello or Canva from their living rooms.
  • Real-time collaboration. Services like Google Workspace or Trello allow teams to collaborate in real-time, boosting productivity and efficiency.
  • Automated updates. Users of SaaS applications enjoy automatic updates, ensuring they always have the latest features and security patches, as seen with products like Salesforce or Zoom.
  • Reduced time to benefit. SaaS applications like Mailchimp or Slack are already installed and configured, shortening the time needed to start.
  • Global accessibility. As long as there’s the Internet, SaaS apps like Dropbox or Asana are accessible, empowering remote work and global collaboration.

The cons of SaaS

  • Intense competition. The ease of entry into the SaaS market means there’s always competition. Companies need to stand out among a sea of alternatives, as newcomers like Clubhouse experienced in the crowded social media space.
  • Long sales cycle. Deciding on a new service can take time, leading to extended sales cycles. SaaS companies like Salesforce or Oracle often need to invest in detailed demos and extensive sales processes to secure new clients.
  • Data security concerns. All internet-based companies are susceptible to data breaches. SaaS providers like Adobe or Zoom must invest heavily in security measures to safeguard customer data.
  • High set-up costs. Launching a SaaS solution requires a significant upfront investment, from product development to marketing. Companies like HubSpot or Atlassian had to front substantial costs before seeing returns.
  • Dependence on reliable Internet. As cloud-based solutions, SaaS products like Slack or Google Docs are only as good as your internet connection. In areas with poor connectivity, usage can be frustrating.
  • Cash flow dependency. SaaS models require consistent cash flow for team maintenance, resource updates, and service offerings. Companies like Spotify or Netflix need a compelling product and a solid customer base to attract investors and maintain positive cash flow.
  • Limited customization. Due to their one-size-fits-all approach, SaaS products like Gmail or Salesforce may not meet unique customer requirements as precisely as custom-built solutions.
  • Dependency on vendors. Businesses relying heavily on SaaS solutions like Amazon AWS or Microsoft 365 are at the mercy of the vendors, with potential risks like unexpected price hikes or service discontinuation.
  • Difficulties with data migration. Transitioning to or from a SaaS platform can be complex. Data loss or corruption can occur when moving data between platforms like Dropbox or OneDrive.
  • Potential for vendor lock-in. Over-reliance on a specific platform, such as AWS or Google Cloud, can lead to vendor lock-in, making it hard to switch services due to the high costs and complexities involved.

Want a free how to start a business checklist?
how to start a business hero
Our checklist is your secret weapon - turning the startup maze into a straightforward path.

We just emailed the checklist to you.

SaaS pricing models

Pricing is a critical aspect of any business, and for SaaS businesses, finding the balance between revenue and growth is vital. Here are ten diverse and successful SaaS pricing models:

Flat-rate pricing

This simple model involves offering a single product, with a set of features, at a single price.

For example, Basecamp, a project management software we love and use at crowdspring, charges a flat rate of $99/month for unlimited projects and users. The benefits of this model include easy communication, straightforward sales, and predictable revenue. However, it might limit value extraction from varied users and upsell opportunities.

Tier-based pricing

One of the most prevalent SaaS pricing models, it offers multiple packages at different price points with varied feature sets. For example, HubSpot uses tiered pricing to cater to different customer profiles, ranging from marketing beginners to large agencies. This model is excellent for targeting multiple customer personas and provides easy upselling routes, but it can be confusing if too many options are presented.

Usage-based pricing

Also known as the “pay-as-you-go” model, customers pay according to product usage. A good example is Twilio, which charges users based on the number of messages they send. The usage-based model reduces barriers to use and scales with usage but can lead to unpredictable revenue and can be dependent on customer growth.

Per-user pricing

Here, customers are charged based on the product’s number of users. Asana uses a per-user model, with pricing increasing as more users are added. This simple model facilitates predictable revenue but may discourage adoption due to per-user costs.

Per active user pricing

A variation of the per-user model, customers are charged based on the number of active users. Slack is an example of this model, charging only for active users. It offers advantages for larger businesses with unpredictable active users but may not be as attractive for smaller companies.

Per feature pricing

In this model, pricing varies according to the features and functionality available in each tier. QuickBooks, for instance, prices their product based on available features per price tier. It provides a strong upgrade incentive but needs careful balance to avoid devaluing certain features or alienating customers.


This model provides a free, basic service with the option to upgrade to more advanced paid features. MailChimp uses this model, offering a free service for users with up to 500 subscribers. Freemium reduces the barrier to adoption and aids in lead generation but can potentially devalue the service and increase customer churn.

Volume pricing

This model provides a lower unit price as the customer purchases larger product volumes. For example, a SaaS company may charge $10 per user for up to 10 users but only $8 for 11-50 users. This model incentivizes businesses to bring more of their team onto the platform.

Feature-bundle pricing

This model involves bundling multiple features or services and offering them at a discounted price compared to purchasing each individually. It’s beneficial for promoting lesser-used features and increasing overall product usage, but careful consideration must be given to avoid devaluing individual features.

Role-based pricing

This pricing model involves charging based on the user’s role in the company. For example, an HR software company may charge more for admin accounts than regular employee accounts. This model can help align pricing with value since higher-level roles may benefit more from the software.

SaaS sales, marketing, and service

Acquiring and retaining users in a SaaS business requires a multifaceted approach that blends sales, marketing, and top-tier service.

The key challenge, according to most SaaS experts? Rapidly achieving growth rates of over 20% yearly.

Despite its intangible nature, this growth depends mainly on adept marketing that swiftly convinces potential users of a product’s value. This requires targeting each stage of the buyer’s journey with compelling content. With many users quickly abandoning new tools, marketers must also help them recognize the product’s value, often called the activation point.

Sales models vary in SaaS businesses, from self-serve products to sales-driven approaches involving a sales team guiding the buyer through the process or enterprise cycles spanning months.

The principal objectives of SaaS marketing include:

  1. Attracting the right target audience, specifically those facing a problem your product can solve.
  2. Nurturing relationships with leads through authoritative content.
  3. Easing the sign-up process and optimizing website conversions.
  4. Engaging users through free or trial plans to encourage them to become paying customers.
  5. Increasing customer lifetime value to maximize subscription revenue.

Various effective marketing channels help SaaS companies achieve these goals:

  • Inbound Marketing – Engages and converts strangers into customers via content.
  • SEO – Positions your content in front of users during their buying journey.
  • Content Marketing – Builds brand authority and relationships with engaging content.
  • Online Advertising – Attracts potential users with targeted ads.
  • PR – Improves brand visibility and awareness through modern strategies.
  • Viral Marketing – Encourages existing customers to promote your product.
  • User Actions – Allows users to introduce the product to their network.
  • App Stores, Resellers, and Affiliates – Provides exposure to new audiences.

Customer service in a SaaS environment is distinct, focusing on aiding customers with product usage rather than typical e-commerce issues like purchases or exchanges.

This is crucial since customer churn is a significant concern in SaaS businesses, with an average churn rate of 5% in the industry. Effective customer service can reduce this churn, boost customer satisfaction, and ultimately contribute to business success.

Understanding key SaaS benchmarks

Deciphering whether your SaaS metrics are on track can be daunting due to variances across industries, business models, and company stages. However, specific guidelines can help.

Low-touch SaaS benchmarks

Conversion rate dynamics

A low-touch SaaS company like Dropbox may offer a free trial, significantly shaping conversion rates.

If the trial doesn’t require a credit card, a conversion rate of roughly 1% is a reasonable baseline. For example, if Dropbox has 1,000 trial users, about 10 would convert to paying customers.

If a credit card is required, around 40% conversion is the benchmark for competent execution. So, if Dropbox required credit card details for the trial, about 400 out of 1,000 trial users might convert.

Customer churn rates

Suppose a company like Slack, operating on month-to-month contracts, has 1,000 customers at the start of the month. With a starting point churn rate of about 5%, they can expect to lose approximately 50 customers by the end of the month.

High-touch SaaS benchmarks

High-touch SaaS businesses like Salesforce typically exhibit more variability in conversion rates due to various factors. An annualized churn rate of around 10% is reasonable. Therefore, if Salesforce starts with 1,000 customers in a year, it might lose about 100 by the end of the year.

Achieving Product/Market Fit

Achieving product/market fit – when a product resonates with a significant group of enthusiastic users – is crucial.

Consider a scenario where a startup develops a project management tool for a broad spectrum of businesses. Upon analyzing their performance metrics, they discover an intriguing pattern: tech startups display high conversion rates and minimal churn. By fine-tuning their approach to cater specifically to tech startups, they would align more closely with their product/market fit.

Similarly, think about another startup that set out to craft accounting and communication solutions for self-managed organizations. A clear trend emerges in their key metrics: homeowner’s associations (HOAs) consistently show high adoption and sustained loyalty. Recognizing this golden opportunity, they recalibrate their business strategy to spotlight their dedicated HOA accounting software, tapping into an area where they evidently excel.

FAQs about SaaS businesses

What is a SaaS business?

SaaS stands for Software as a Service, a business model where software applications are provided on a subscription basis. Companies like Dropbox and Salesforce exemplify this model.

What are low-touch and high-touch SaaS?

Low-touch SaaS models, like Dropbox, require minimal customer interaction and are self-service-oriented. High-touch models, like Salesforce, involve higher levels of customer engagement, including sales representatives and personal assistance.

What is a reasonable conversion rate for low-touch SaaS?

Depending on whether a free trial requires a credit card, conversion rates can range from 1% (no card required) to 40% (card required).

What is a reasonable conversion rate for high-touch SaaS?

High-touch SaaS businesses have varied conversion rates due to factors such as industry, sales process, and more. Metrics like customer churn rates, which should ideally be 10% annually, are often more insightful.

What is customer churn?

Customer churn is the rate customers stop subscribing to a SaaS service over a period. The lower the churn rate, the better.

What is product/market fit?

Product/market fit signifies that a company’s product meets market demand and has a distinct group of users who value it highly. Achieving this fit often leads to higher conversion and lower churn rates.

How can I identify product/market fit?

Analyzing your user metrics can reveal product/market fit. High conversion rates, low churn rates, and relatively higher Annual Contract Value (ACV) from specific user segments usually indicate a strong fit.

What strategies can help achieve product/market fit?

Listening to customers, refining your product to their needs, and altering your marketing, messaging, and design to target the best customers more closely can help achieve product/market fit.

Why are SaaS metrics important?

Metrics like conversion rates, churn rates, and product/market fit guide a company’s decision-making process, showing what works well and what needs improvement.

How can I improve my SaaS business performance?

Regularly monitoring your key metrics, responding to customer feedback, and continuously improving your product and services based on this data can enhance your SaaS business performance.


Embracing the SaaS business model can initially seem challenging, yet it is a conquerable feat. This guide empowers you to boldly navigate the intricacies of the SaaS industry, enabling you to craft a robust pricing strategy that is a competitive differentiator and a driving force for your business’s growth.

Design Done Better

The easiest way to get affordable, high-quality custom logos, print design, web design and naming for your business.

Learn How to Grow Your Business With Beautiful Design